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The type and structure of collagen

Collagen is a glycoprotein, a small amount of sugar and 5 -hydroxyproline (Hy1) residues 8 - hydroxy-covalently attached to the carbon, which is characterized by amino acid composition containing 33% Gly, 13% Pro, 10% ofhydroxyproline and hydroxylysine, the formation of three αpolypeptide chains (subunits) wound triple helix (triple helix), αcollagen fibrils in vivo with collagen (collagen fibril) or calledcollagen fibers (collagen fiber) form, the basic structure ofcollagen fibrils unit is procollagen (protocollagen) molecules, and the relative molecular mass of 2.85 × 105, consists of three polypeptide chains wound shares, share a length of about 1000 amino acid residues. Original collagen moleculeis about 300nm, a diameter of about 1.5nm.


According to the different structure of collagen, collagen fiberscan be divided into, the base film of collagen, collagenmicrofibrils, collagen anchored, hexagonal mesh of collagen,non-fibrous collagen, collagen membrane, collagen, basement membrane and other special the role of collagen.


Collagen present in human connective tissue, bone andcartilage, mainly Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ type, Ⅳ type, V-type …… etc. 26 different types, the first five kinds of collagen easily separatedand the yield is relatively high. Collagen Ⅰ mainly present inadult skin and bone tissue, tendon, blood vessel wall by two α1 (I) and a peptide chain α2 (I) peptide chains, namely [α1 (I)] 2α2 (I) ; II collagen mainly present in cartilage and vitreous disc; Type III collagen mainly present in the skin or in the intima bythree identical polypeptide chains [α1 (Ⅲ)] 3 composition; Ⅳcollagen mainly present in the basement membrane, placenta,the lens, the molecular form [α1 (Ⅳ)] 2α2 (Ⅳ), [α1 (Ⅳ)] 3 and [α2 (Ⅳ)] 3; V collagen protein mainly in the skin and the vessel wall, the three helical chains [α1 (V)] 2α2 (V ) and α1 (V) α2 (V) α3 (V) of three different body forms.